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College of Architecture
Texas Tech University
Mail Stop 42091
Lubbock, Texas 79409
Phone 806-742-3136
Email: architecture@ttu.edu


Because the section begins with the visualization of that which will not be directly seen, it remains abstracted from the dominant way of understanding architecture through photographs and renderings. Sections provide a unique form of knowledge, one that by necessity shifts the emphasis from image to performance, from surface to the intersection of structure and materiality that comprises the tectonic logic of architecture. At the same time, section demonstrates the exchange among multiple aspects of embodied experience and architectural space, making explicit the intersection of scale and proportion, sight and view, touch and reach that is rendered visible in the vertical dimension (as opposed to from top down). In a section, the interior elevations of walls and surfaces are revealed, combining—for examination and exploration—structure and ornament, envelop and interior.
Lewis, Paul, Marc Tsurumaki and David Lewis. Manual of Section. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2016, p.7.

PDF Syllabus


Course & Instructor Information

Spring 2017 ARCH 2542, Architectural Design Studio IV

Credits: 4 semester credit hours

Prerequisite: ARCH 2401

Meeting Times: Monday/Wednesday/Friday, 8:00 to 11:20am

Victoria McReynolds — Section 301 — Studio Room 411

[mailto:v.mcreynolds@ttu.edu v.mcreynolds@ttu.edu, 806-834-8756

Office Room 405, Office Hours Wed 4:30-6:00 & by appointment.

Ophelia Mantz — Section 302 — Studio Room 408
ophelia.mantz@ttu.edu, 806-834-0422

Office Room 303, Office Hours Wed 2:00-4:00 & by appointment.

Andrew Fulcher — Section 303 — Studio Room 406 

andrew.fulcher@ttu.edu, 806-742-3136

Office Room 303, Office Hours Wed 2:00-4:00 & by appointment.

Chris Taylor — Section 304 — Studio Room 402
chris.taylor@ttu.edu, 806-834-1589

Office Room 709, Office Hours by appointment.

Hendrika Buelinckx — Section 305 — Studio Room 404

hendrika.buelinckx@ttu.edu, 806-834-0439

Office Room 307, Office Hours Thurs 12:30-2:00pm & by appointment.

Catalog Course Description

Basic-External. Introduces design skills that are external to architectural practice-drawing as inquiries and analysis, integration of building elements, site and program. 4 Credits, Undergraduate.

Course Objectives & Learning Outcomes

ARCH 2402 seeks to compound and refine foundational design process skills that extend beyond the formation of discreetly composed objects. Sonic binoculars augment the ability to sense and respond to phenomena before it becomes apparent to the observer——an historic military example enhances the human body to detect sounds of distant aircraft before they become visible. Solar orientation for shade or thermal gain is a disciplinary example where forces extending beyond immediate perception are anticipated with understandings of the earth’s rotation around the sun and the capability of matter to absorb or reflect heat energy. Primary goals of this studio are to gain an understanding of architecture as more than accretion of well composed form; to construct working methods to conceive and create architecture of interbedded forces and properties that extend from planetary geometry to molecular character; and, to use performative physical models and sectional drawings as generative tools catalyzing spatial possibility through analysis and synthesis of expanding site conditions and human interaction with architecture. In addition, upon successful completion of this course student work will demonstrate the abilities of NAAB criteria A1, A4, A5, A6 and the introduction of NAAB criteria B1, B3, B7.

Course Structure

The semester will evolve through four integrated phases (ANALYTICAL ACTION, FIELD CONDITIONS, GEOMETRIC PRECEDENT, and SPATIAL PERFORMANCE) with independent objectives building incrementally across concepts, strategies, and techniques into the final project. Spatial development will be tested across three scales of operation: BOUNDS (geometries extending from planetary to geomorphologic), BUILDING (geometries extending from geomorphologic to spatial envelop), and BODY (geometries extending from spatial envelop to molecular character).

Project 1 - ANALYTICAL ACTION (soundcheck)

Design an analytical action or process, a game, to record and create embodied forms of measuring that map perceptual characteristics of the FIELD CONDITIONS. The game should focus on the interaction between people and place including recordings or mapping of (at a minimum) time, texture, temperature, light, sound, and scale. Recording processes must produce synthesized physical evidence to be incorporated into and produced in conjunction with Project 2. Six weeks operating concurrently with Project 2 & 3.

Project 2 - FIELD CONDITIONS (baseline)

Construct a working physical model to synthesize evidence discovered by the ANALYTICAL ACTION. This performative model should include the volumetric limits, character, and experience of the site conditions. The model must be self supporting, have no singular base plane, be legible from and through all six sides, and register site sections from curb to creek, flood datum, and solar geometry. Six weeks operating concurrently with Project 1 & 2.

Project 3 - GEOMETRIC PRECEDENT (reverb)

Geometric and volumetric analysis of existing outdoor performance space from a list of examples provided by faculty. One week occurring within Project 1 & 2.

Project 4 - SPATIAL PERFORMANCE (bandshell)

Design an outdoor event space to include detail resolution of bandshell (protection and projection), seating and paths (hard and soft scapes), aspirational bathrooms (light, air, water), compact concession (more hot dog stand than restaurant), control booth (sound and light), services (incoming and outgoing), lighting, signage, access and drainage. Eight weeks.


Criticism of design proposals presented in drawings, models and process studies during class sessions, pinups and formal reviews will be the primary methods of assessment. Specific production specifications and documents will be required at the completion of each project. Details will be determined by section with the minimum to include:

Project 1 - ANALYTICAL ACTION (soundcheck)

  • Written statement of analytical objectives (printed).
  • Written notes of analytical findings (from sketchbook).
  • Drawings and image collages of analytical process and findings.
  • Props, tools, and apparatus constructed for analysis.
  • Recorded evidence of analytical process and findings.
  • Printed folio in studio format with PDF posted to wiki.

Project 2 - FIELD CONDITIONS (baseline)

  • Performative model of field conditions at 1”=60’-0” (with a vertical scale exaggeration factor of 4) describing volumetric limits, spatial and material character, and human experience of the site area. Model must be:
    • self supporting,
    • have no singular base plane, and
    • be legible from and through all six sides (top, bottom, front, back, right, left)
  • Model must include:
    • solar geometry,
    • flood datum, and
    • site section conditions from creek to curb.
  • Process drawings, notes, photographs of model construction and development.
  • Written statement of field conditions discovered during model construction.
  • Printed folio in studio format with PDF posted to wiki.

Project 3 - GEOMETRIC PRECEDENT (reverb)

  • Written text briefly describing characteristics examined within precedent including location and creator/designer.
  • Cross, longitudinal and plan section drawings describing geometry of sight lines, acoustic deflections, solar performance within the volumetric limits of the project at 1/8”=1’-0”.
  • Analytical detail demonstrating of human body interaction with material and immaterial forces and characteristics at 1/2”=1’-0”. Not a picture illustrating relationships, but an exploratory drawing evidencing performance of the relationships.
  • Printed folio in studio format with PDF posted to wiki.

Project 4 - SPATIAL PERFORMANCE (bandshell)

  • Performative site model at 1/8”=1’-0” advancing the operative analytical properties from the Field Conditions while including the bandshell programmatic elements.
  • Performative site sections (cross, longitudinal and plan) at 1/8”=1’-0” situating programmatic experience within field conditions (including solar geometry).
  • Analytical detail demonstrating of human body interaction with material and immaterial forces and characteristics at 1/2”=1’-0”. Not a picture illustrating relationships, but an exploratory drawing evidencing performance of the relationships.
  • Written statement of project aspirations and compositional ordering systems and strategies.
  • Process drawings and models.
  • Printed folio in studio format with PDF posted to wiki.

Final Review

Confirm course schedule for the date of the final review. It will be scheduled centrally by the college in conjunction with all other reviews and will take place over a full day from 9am to 5pm. Insure you will be available to participate for the duration. The final review will evaluate Project 4 as well as the progression of development across all projects of the semester.

National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB) 
 Student Performance Criteria (SPC)

SPCs A.1, A.4, A.5, A.6 to be demonstrated.

A.1. Professional Communication Skills: Ability to write and speak effectively and use representational media appropriate within the profession and with the general public.

A.4 Architectural Design Skills: Ability to effectively use basic formal, organizational and environmental principles and the capacity of each to inform two- and three-dimensional design.

A.5 Ordering Systems: Ability to apply the fundamentals of both natural and formal ordering systems and the capacity of each to inform two- and three-dimensional design.

A.6 Use of Precedents: Ability to examine and comprehend the fundamental principles present in relevant precedents and to make informed choices about the incorporation of such principles into architecture and urban design projects.


B.1 Pre-Design: Ability to prepare a comprehensive program for an architectural project that includes an assessment of client and user needs; an inventory of spaces and their requirements; an analysis of site conditions (including existing buildings); a review of the relevant building codes and standards, including relevant sustainability requirements, and an assessment of their implications for the project; and a definition of site selection and design assessment criteria.

B.3. Codes and Regulations: Ability to design sites, facilities, and systems that are responsive to relevant codes and regulations, and include the principles of life-safety and accessibility standards.

B.7 Building Envelope Systems and Assemblies: Understanding of the basic principles involved in the appropriate selection and application of building envelope systems relative to fundamental performance, aesthetics, moisture transfer, durability, and energy and material resources.



To receive effective criticism, each student is expected to have ready for display new design work at the beginning of each class meeting. Only significant new work will be discussed——no verbal arm waving or superficial repetitions. During group reviews it will not be necessary to talk about every project, as each student is expected to understand and apply relevant criticisms to their work. Students are encouraged to ask questions and engage in critical dialog of all work within the studio. Students are expected to spend a significant amount of time working on studio projects outside of class time.


Given the nature and intensity of studio education it is vital all participants help create a constructive and appropriate studio culture. As an elaboration of the studio Truisms all students are required to comply with the studio rules. In short they are:

  • The inconvenienced person in the studio is always right.
  • During class times there will be no extracurricular digital communication or media display in the studio, including text messaging, social media websites, televisual programming, and phone calls.
  • Studio must be kept healthy and safe.
  • All rules ~ TRUISMS ~ apply in the studio always, 24 / 7 / 365.

It is essential the studio is a space of work and and exploration. Therefore being prepared with the appropriate tools, equipment and clothing is essential for every class session. This includes the ability to work from shop to screen.

Some Rules for Students and Teachers

From John Cage, via Merce Cunningham, by Sister Corita Kent.

RULE ONE: Find a place you trust, and then, try trusting it for awhile.

RULE TWO: (General Duties of a Student) Pull everything out of your teacher. Pull everything out of your fellow students.

RULE THREE: (General duties of a teacher) Pull everything out of your students.

RULE FOUR: Consider everything an experiment.

RULE FIVE: Be Self Disciplined. This means finding someone wise or smart and choosing to follow them. To be disciplined is to follow in a good way. To be self disciplined is to follow in a better way.

RULE SIX: Follow the leader. Nothing is a mistake. There’s no win and no fail, there’s only make.

RULE SEVEN: The only rule is work. If you work it will lead to something. It’s the people who do all of the work all of the time who eventually catch on to things. You can fool the fans — but not the players.

RULE EIGHT: Don’t try to create and analyze at the same time. They are different processes.

RULE NINE: Be happy whenever you can manage it. Enjoy yourself. It’s lighter than you think.

RULE TEN: “We are breaking all the rules, even our own rules and how do we do that? By leaving plenty of room for X quantities.” (John Cage)


  • Always Be Around.
  • Come or go to everything.
  • Always go to classes.
  • Read anything you can get your hands on.
  • Look at movies carefully and often.
  • SAVE EVERYTHING. It might come in handy later.


Faculty and students should maintain an environment that is secure, focused, respectful, mutually civil, conducive to working individually and in teams, and to listening to instructors and other students (See Studio Culture Policy). Students are expected to assist in maintaining a productive classroom environment (during and after hours) within the studio that is conducive to learning. To assure all students gain maximum opportunities from time spent in studio, distractions are prohibited. Inappropriate behavior in studio shall result, minimally, in a request to leave the classroom, resulting in an absence.


Spray can painting of projects is NOT ALLOWED UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES either within the building, on campus, or off campus. Use the spray booth in the model shop is available for water based spray gun painting only.

Digital Portfolio & File Naming

Digital scans, diagrams, drawings, and images of models will be submitted according to specified formats at designated times throughout the semester. Everything created in the studio will exist both in analog and digital form. Creating a standard system of naming files and objects is essential to maintain order. All digital documents must adhere to the following naming convention: 2017_ARCH2402_FacultylastnameFacultyfirstinitial_Studentlastname_Studentfirstinital_projectnumber_articlenumber.fileextension
For example:


Insuring work is submitted/posted on time as well as adherence to naming conventions will impact the overall participation evaluation.

Persistent Tool & Equipment Requirements

Design notebook to document evolving studio thoughts and progress (sketches, drawings, notes, writings, etc.) is required for each student. The notebook is crucial to reflective thinking and a vital record of key ideas and explorations embodied within final projects. The notebook must be available in class everyday. Scans of the notebook will be required in digital and analog portfolios.

Safety clothing to support work in the shop and studio is required. At a minimum this will include safety glasses, work apron, and closed toe shoes.

Personal laptop computer used for course work is required for each student. See the college website for minimum specifications. Technical difficulties, viruses, crashes, server and print bureau problems, or corrupted files will not be accepted as excuses for not producing assigned work. Back up all digital work regularly.

Software such as current Adobe Creative Cloud and three dimensional modeling tools are required and available from eRaider.ttu.edu, Texas Technology Store or Creative Engine. Verify specific platform and application requirements with section instructor.

Desktop printer for small desktop output in studio aids design process and review. Printing is also available in the College PRINT BUREAU and other venues in Lubbock. Be prepared to print as much as required to support design development.

Digital camera and tripod for documenting work and field conditions (minimum of 12 megapixel resolution) are essential tools of architects. While phone cameras are increasingly impressive and efficient they are no replacement for the deliberate framing that occurs with a tripod mounted camera. Such equipment is also available in the College PRINT BUREAU.

Desk tools required for daily use, at a minimum, include: architects scale; engineering scale; drafting triangles; metal straight edge; rolls of white or yellow trace paper; opaque drawing paper; drafting tape; lead holder with 6H, 2H, HB, 2B leads; pencils; lead pointer and sharpener; water based colored pens and markers; healable cutting board; modeling knives; modeling glue; clear push pins and clips for hanging drawings. See 2017 ARCH 2402 Studio Materials for a complete listing of supplies required for the studio.

Consumables, such as computing, drawing and model making supplies, necessary throughout the semester and as required by specific assignments should be expected. Architecture is inherently about making and students should be prepared to commit the necessary resources of time and material for the completion of the work. This does not necessary mean exorbitant sums of money need be spent. Consider options carefully for acquiring materials in the most efficient and economical manner (for example group purchasing or online/discount vendors).

REQUIRED TEXT (available at campus Barnes & Noble)

Lewis, Paul, Marc Tsurumaki and David Lewis. Manual of Section. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2016

REFERENCE TEXTS (on reserve in the Architecture Library)

Allen, Edward. Architect’s Studio Companion: Rules of Thumb for Preliminary Design. Hoboken, N.J.: John Willey & Sons, 2012. ISBN 9780471221852

Galán, Ignacio Gonzalez. A24 - Alberto Cruz, Godofredo Iommi, Claudio Girola: Escuela e Instituto de Arquitectura PUCV. http://radical-pedagogies.com/search-cases/a24-escuela-instituto-arquitectura/

Koolhaas, Rem. Elements: floor, wall, ceiling, roof, door, etc. Venice: Marsilio Editori Spa, 2014. ISBN 9783037784297

Morrish, William. Civilizing Terrains: Mountains, Mounds and Mesas. Richmond, CA: William Stout Publisher, 1996. ISBN 9780965114417

Pallasmaa, Juhani. The Thinking Hand: existential and embodied wisdom in architecture. London: Wiley, 2009. ISBN 9780470779293

Reiser, Jesse. Atlas of Novel Tectonics. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2006. ISBN 9781568985541

Smout, Mark and Laura Allen. Augmented Landscapes. New York, N.J.: Princeton Architectural Press, 2007. ISBN 9781568986258

Strunk Jr., William Jr. and E.B. White. The Elements of Style Illustrated. Maira Kalman illustrator. New York: Penguin Press, 2005 ISBN 1594200696

Tschumi, Bernard. The Manhattan Transcripts. London: Academy Editions, 1981. ISBN 9780312512866

Zumthor, Peter. Atmospheres: architectural environments, surrounding objects. Basel: Birkhauser, 2006. ISBN 9783764374952


Please consult the following websites for information on dropping a course, on how to report illness, absence due to religious observance, and academic integrity: Texas Tech Undergraduate Academic Catalog, Student Handbook, and Code of Student Conduct. Should any changes in the syllabus be required during the course of the semester in-class announcements and/or electronic postings will be made to alert all participants. Check announcements on the course website often.

ADA Statement

"Any student who, because of a disability, may require special arrangements in order to meet the course requirements should contact the instructor as soon as possible to make any necessary arrangements. Students should present appropriate verification from Student Disability Services during the instructor’s office hours.  Please note instructors are not allowed to provide classroom accommodations to a student until appropriate verification from Student Disability Services has been provided. For additional information you may contact the Student Disability Services office in 335 West Hall or 806-742-2405.”


Students are required to comply with the College Academic Policies, Attendance Policy, Architecture Building Policies, Student Code of Conduct, and the Retention of Student Work Policy.


The College Attendance Policy states that students are responsible for attending all scheduled class meetings for the full class period. A total of four (4) absences is considered excessive, requiring the student to drop the course or receive a grade of “F” in compliance with drop deadlines. Tardiness, arriving more than 15 minutes late, will be recorded as 1/2 of an absence and after 30 minutes will be recorded as an absence. All absences are considered unexcused except absences due to religious observance or officially approved trips. Students are expected to comply with rules for reporting student illness requiring absence from class for more than one week or immediate family member deaths. See Academic Regulations.

Attendance is defined as full participation in all studio activities including group and individual critiques, lectures, presentations, demonstrations, discussions, in class assignments, and possible field trips. Attendance requires students have the necessary tools and supplies available for all studio actives (ie: computer, drawing and modeling materials, and shop safety equipment). Excessive tardiness, leaving early, lack of participation, walking in and out, undivided attention, goofing around, and disruptive behavior will be recorded as an absence. Working on assignments from other classes is not be allowed during class time.


Evaluation of student performance is based upon the ambition of daily studio progress and the resolution of final products presented during formal reviews. Final reviews are our exams. Persistent production and hard work are expected. Improvement and growth is essential. Instructors conduct expert reviews of overall student performance, relative to all students in the course, following major stages of the semester. Evaluations are based on years of experienced review of student work and are not negotiable. Evaluation are considered relative to intention, development, and resolution of each project on a 0-100 scale.

See College Grade Definitions for letter grade determinations. Project weighting for the semester will be:

Component = Percentage
PROJECT 1 = 15%
PROJECT 2 = 15%
PROJECT 3 = 10%
PROJECT 4 = 45%
Participation = 15%
Total Grade = 100%

All work must be completed on time. Expect substantial grade reductions for late or incomplete work.

Grading will be based on individual performance and the products produced over the course of the term. Everything relative to the studio production is part of the process. Grading will follow the criteria of the college Grade Definitions and evaluations will be provided at the conclusion of each stage of the studio. Attendance is vital to success in this studio (be sure to review the Attendance Policy listed above). Participation in lectures and events outside class are also required as vital to your education as an architect.

No extra credit is available in this course.

Failure to clear out individual and collective studio space by the studio clean out date at the end of the term will result in a letter grade reduction.