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College of Architecture
Texas Tech University
Mail Stop 42091
Lubbock, Texas 79409
Phone 806-742-3136
Email: architecture@ttu.edu

Instructor: Victoria McReynolds

Architecture Design Studio II


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Design Analysis

| Design Synthesis 01

Design Synthesis 01 - site

Design Synthesis 02

Design Synthesis 02 - Site


Arredondo, Dan

Bonilla, Marvin

Brennan, Christopher

Clifford, Thomas

Dumas, Ryan

Edwards, Kendall

Freres, Mark

Nguyen, Jaydan

Oliver, Samuel

Pacheco, Andrew

Petty, Clifton

Rivera, Ismael

Serna, Edward

Sprinkle, Zack


Diagramming Light

Within your axonometric drawing construct a diagram of light as it passes through your exhibition project. This light diagram will be a documentation of three light conditions: (1) the light projection, (2) the frame in which the light passes through, and (3) the threshold boundary between light and shadow. Each light condition is integral in visualizing the volume of light. This diagram should serve to reinforce a demonstration of light operation in your project.

Select an accent color in which to integrate the light diagram so as not to compete with the spatial descriptions in your axonometric drawing. Choose a sun position and corresponding light angle that runs perpendicular to the direction of view your axonometric provides. Develop the axonometric and diagram as an x-ray condition, looking through the project to reveal all spaces.

For Friday:
24"x24" axonometric project light diagram
11"x17" refined section collages
plans and site plan

--Victoria McReynolds 18:14, 29 November 2012 (UTC)

Tracking Light

The sun is a fantastic and dependable source of light. As was demonstrated outside, sun path diagrams allow you to located and predict the sun's location in the sky for anytime of the year, a beneficial skill to build the dialog between light and architecture. When observing light perform with your model the sun peg diagram offers a similar accuracy of light positioning as it sets in relation the sun to your model. Use these tools to track the light performance within your project and exhibition space as one would experience it for differing seasons. Photograph different hours and days to build up an animation of the changing light. By tracking and documenting how the light performs in your model you are able to fine tune the experience of that space by treating the threshold through which the light passes.

For Monday:
11x17 Light Performance images, 4" height, minimum 9
11x17 Longitudinal and Cross Section Collage revision, @ 1/8" scale
Volumetric Model Development

--Victoria McReynolds 18:23, 20 November 2012 (UTC)

Light Performance + Composite Drawings

As we enter the final stretch of Project 2 it is critical that your early light/shadow investigations and lessons are not lost among architecture pragmatics. For Wednesday, any project development needs to be made first in the volumetric model in order to test the light performance. Make use of your desk lamp and camera to better realize the desired quality of space.

We also discussed how the light shadow composite drawing is important to communicate both an accuracy of dimensional reality with the quality of spatial atmosphere. Make use of contrasting lines to distinguish the poche material from the interior shadow space, reference last year section drawings by Megan Alexander. Construct the light shadow section on sketch by hand using charcoal or graphite, scan the drawing and open it in photoshop to fine tune the levels and opacity, then place in illustrator to build up the vector line clarity. Be sure to include basic foundation information, such as a 8" retaining wall, 6" slab on grade with perimeter footings, and an elevator pit of 5' deep at the base of the elevator.

For Wednesday:
1/8" volumetric model
1/8" longitudinal section w/context + light shadow
1/8" cross section w/context + light shadow

--Victoria McReynolds 02:18, 13 November 2012 (UTC)

Design Synthesis Project 2 - content

1/16" concept diagram
1/16" concept model
1/8" concept model
1/16" site plan w/roof
1/8" canal floor plan
1/8" street floor plan
1/8" elevated walk floor plan
1/8" longitudinal section w/context + light shadow
1/8" cross section w/context + light shadow

24"x24" full axonometric

1/8" circulation + program model
1/8" volumetric model
5"x36" light shadow space photo strip

  • subject to change

--Victoria McReynolds 13:26, 7 November 2012 (UTC)

Axonometric Understanding

Continue to develop and refine your volumetric model based upon circulation + program, light + shadow, and relationship to urban context. Construct an x-ray axonometric or isometric drawing of your project as seen from the Southeast or Southwest orientation. Apply a hierarchy of line languages as it would relate to exterior, interior, or behind interior element conditions.

Consistently reference your project development work, such as conceptual model, concept diagram, program + circulation model and light studies. Vertical circulation references are posted in the Project section of Course References.

For Wednesday:
1/8" volumetric model
24"x24" axonometric x-ray complete drawing

--Victoria McReynolds 02:38, 6 November 2012 (UTC)

Project 2 Progress Content

Two full working weeks have passed developing project 2.

Below is a list of the following content introduced and reviewed in studio thus far. As we reach the project mid-point, be sure to make use and reference your progress work as it is important to build upon previous observations and lessons.

Progress Content for 11/5:
1/16" concept/term diagram
1/16" concept model
1/8" concept model
1/8" circulation + program model
1/8" volumetric model
1/8" longitudinal section w/context + light shadow study
1/8" cross section w/context

--Victoria McReynolds 13:11, 5 November 2012 (UTC)

Circulation + Program - revise and Volumetric model

For Friday:
1/8" One Volumetric model
8.5"x11" Three photo of model light conditions
1/8" One Circulation + Program model
1/8" Longitudinal Section with context, 36" width
1/8" Cross Section with context, 24" width

--Victoria McReynolds 23:10, 1 November 2012 (UTC)

Circulation + Program - revise

Revise all three Circulation + Program models. Develop the circulation sequence so that it reinforces your concept. Adapt widths, lengths, intersections and path rotations as they respond to context, program desires and light/shadow conditions.

For Wednesday:
(3) 1/8" Circulation + Program Model

--Victoria McReynolds 16:06, 30 October 2012 (UTC)

Circulation + Program

You are develop three strategies derived from your concept of circulating through the site taking advantage of the many elevation levels present; the canal, streetscape, and elevated walk. Each condition addresses the site in a variety of ways: over and above, down and below, wrap and center. Your circulation scheme should address all three by negotiating the relationships of departure, procession and arrival. The project must have at least one elevator and an additional means of circulation, either stairs, ramps, or escalators. Utilize Rhino to determine the calculations and necessary length needed to circulate vertically.

Construct three 1/8" Circulation + Program models. The three components of vertical circulation (departure, procession, and arrival) are the only elements to model in chipboard, while the program is to be modeled by piano wire. There is no footprint / base to be constructed out of chipboard for the models however the model still needs to stand on its own.

The images below are for reference of calculating vertical circulation quantity, measurements and code references

For Monday:
(3) 1/8" Circulation + Program Models

--Victoria McReynolds 13:17, 27 October 2012 (UTC)

Concept Revisions

As a reminder, select one of your three concepts to move forward. Refine the concept diagram taking into account topic discussed yesterday on context and orientation impacts. Construct three new concept models at 1/16" that spatialize the diagram across the site both laterally and vertically. Be intentional about how the concept diagram address light and shadow as it relates to the site orientation and adjacent built conditions.

For Wednesday: 1 revised concept diagram @ 1/16"
3 new concept models based upon the revised diagram @ 1/16"

--Victoria McReynolds 14:22, 23 October 2012 (UTC)

Design Synthesis Project 02

As a refresher, Design Synthesis 02 situates the light shadow exhibition on a new site. To better visualize and understand the complexities of this urban site the studio will construct a collective 1/8" site model. Andrew leads the base team which will build the site, stairs, bridge, street surface, sky walk and site footprint. Edward leads the building team who is responsible for all context buildings. Below is a list of each team member.

To begin the conceptual strategy of Project 02 we will draw from the concept diagrams established in Project 01. Re-situate your organization strategies realized in the previous project to the new site conditions, for example adapt the concept diagram to the urban conditions of a corner site, circulation inlets, lot orientation, sun, and canal. Each concept diagram is to include a corresponding concept model that explores the diagram spatially, relating the concept to site opportunities occurring at the canal level, street level and sky walk level.

For Monday (10/22):
1/8" site model
(3) 1/16" concept diagrams
(3) 1/16" concept models (corresponding to concept diagram)

Base Team: Edward (c), Sam, Ismael, Dan, Thomas, Jaydan
Building Team: Andrew (c), Zak, Chris, Mark, Marvin, Ryan, Kendall, Clifton

--Victoria McReynolds 21:24, 20 October 2012 (UTC)

Design Synthesis Project 01 - Documentation

For Friday, 10/19, have photographed all models and uploaded Project 1 Light Shadow Exhibition work to your wiki site. A minimum of 6 photographs per final model is required.

Design Synthesis Project 01 - Final Requirements

Have all necessary printed work completed and pinned up by 9:00pm tomorrow, Tuesday Oct 16. I will walk through studio to review. If you have any questions, visit during my office hours tomorrow from 10:00 am - noon or send me an email.

Design Synthesis Project 01 : Light Shadow Exhibition
statement of intent
3 light box study photos layouts
1/16” concept diagram
1/16” concept model
1/32” site plan w/roof plan
1/8” circulation model
1/8” physical model w/ site model
1/8” floor plan w/context
1/8” longitudinal section w/context and light shadow section overlaid
1/8” cross section w/context

--Victoria McReynolds 02:16, 16 October 2012 (UTC)

Develop through section

Utilize the process of translating your physical model into a digital model to refine enclosure treatments of facade and roof. As discussed in our studio session, establish a dialog between the interior program and the exterior enclosure at a scale that address the particularities of space and reinforces your concept. This dialog can be an articulation of spatial or programatic performance, such as directing the light or describing a function type.

From the member size pdf guidlines, develop a digital model in which to draw your sections and plan from. Be sure to include context in the drawings as 60% poche grey tone. This is to be in contrast to the black poche of your building cuts. Wednesday we will create shadow / light sketch drawings over your constructed longitudinal and cross section.

For Wednesday (10/10)
1/8" longitudnal section w/ site context (sidewalk, street, building)
1/8" cross section w/ site context (sidewalk, street, building)
1/8" floor plan

--Victoria McReynolds 02:03, 9 October 2012 (UTC)

Constraint as opportunity

With a 7' elevation change across the urban infill site accessible circulation is going to demand space and require sequencing. The key is to develop a circulation organization that reinforces your concept through proximity, tension, proportion, rotation and placement. Consider the slope of your ramp as an opportunity to establish a language of planar rotation or expressed tension. Revise your three Circulation + Program models in order to fully realize the conceptual integration of your circulation and program placement across the site.

As was stated for Wednesday (10/3), all previous work must be uploaded to your student wiki site. We will discuss the wiki work Friday and I will review the individual pages.

For Friday:
3 Revised Circulation + Program models @ 1/8" scale
Upload previous work to your student wiki site

--Victoria McReynolds 16:03, 4 October 2012 (UTC)

Circulation + Program

Create three models at 1/8" scale that explore circulation strategies and program organization on your site as they relate to your selected concept. As discussed in studio, the maximum ramp rise is 30" before a landing is required, a ramp slope range is between 1:20 to 1:12, and the minimum length a landing must be is 60". Reference chapter 4 and chapter 6 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) 2010 Handbook for information on ramp and restroom constraints. Include the program space requirements for the Light Shadow Exhibition as outlined in the project statement. Construct the circulation path from chipboard and program spaces from piano wire. Utilize various piano wire thicknesses and/or volume heights to indicate hierarchy among the program. Communicate intention through the quality of your built model.

In addition, upload your presented Design Analysis work and Design Project 1 light study, concept diagrams and concept models.

Circulation Constraints:
site elevation change > 7'
ramp slope > 1:20 - 1:12
ramp maximum rise > 30"
ramp landing minimum length > 60"
restroom turning diameter > 60"

For Wednesday: 3 Circulation + Program models @ 1/8" scale Upload previous work to your student wiki site

--Victoria McReynolds 15:52, 2 October 2012 (UTC)

Concept Foundation

Ideas stem from a range of inspiration, what becomes crucial is understanding how to develop, refine, and apply an idea.

For our Design Synthesis Project 1 we will focus on realizing an idea through program, circulation and light by testing constants, variables and space typology on an urban site. Each of you will create a a concept foundation by pulling forward from your precedent study a rule set and light condition.

Three steps are required to construct the Concept Foundation:
1) create a constraints diagram by applying the rule set of your precedent house, realized for the translation diagrams, on top of your urban site,
2) translate that rule set based upon a selected word drawn from your light study models,
3) provide a resulting concept diagram which adapts the ordering system of your precedent house towards the site and your observation of light behavior.

For Friday:
Create three Concept Foundation Diagrams. Utilize the same applied rule set for each series. All diagrams are to be developed at the 1/8" scale.

--Victoria McReynolds 15:45, 27 September 2012 (UTC)

Light Condition Models

Identify three different light types and corresponding spaces in your precedent house from which to explore further. Diagram the boundaries of the light condition by delineating surfaces and openings. Working from one of the surface and opening organization, develop three model studies that refine the capture of direct light. Repeat the light model exploration for the second selected light space in your house, this time refining indirect light. Repeat for a third time adapting the last selected light space in your house as it relates to diffusing light. Work from the limitation of 6 solid planes for the direct light model. For indirect light, introduce an additional solid plane for a total of seven, while the diffused light model is a construction of six solid planes and one plane of translucent material (such as frosted acrylic or mylar). Construct the models from chipboard with detail intention paid to the craft, be sure to allow for one solid plane to be removed in order to view and photograph the effect of light on the interior of your model.

Utilize Steven Holl's light score as a great example of controlled light within a space. In regards to planar shifts, reference Donald Judd's box studies of 100 untitled works in mill aluminum and his untitled plywood boxes at Dia Beacon to visualize variable plane configurations and the resulting space organization .

For Friday:
Work in studio on light models
10:00am laser cutting workshop

For Monday:
9 Light Study Models: (3) direct, (3) indirect and (3) diffused
Response to Reading Questions

--Victoria McReynolds 23:54, 19 September 2012 (UTC)

Atmosphere Reading Questions
The following questions will be discussed on Monday, 9/24. Have your answers prepared in advance.

Atmospheres: Architectural Environments - Surrounding Objects
by Peter Zumthor
Question 1

Define what the "magic of the real" is that Zumthor identifies and recall three spaces in which you experienced "magic of the real".

Question 2

What are the nine components of Zumthor's Atmospheres? - identify and define.

Question 3

Why is consideration of the "atmosphere" important in architecture?

Question 4

Zumthor’s process builds upon experiential conditions when creating architecture, what are other methods architects use when generating architecture?

--Victoria McReynolds 23:54, 19 September 2012 (UTC)

Design Analysis Presentation

On Wednesday, you will present your completed work of your researched house. Spend some time looking, remembering and considering each exercise and the information you came to conclude. As outlined in the Design Analysis description, able to explain the conceptual relevance and application of the house.

Presentation Requirements:

reconstructed floor plans & longitudinal section - 24”x30”
reconstructed site plan - 24”x10”
axonometric section w/shadows - 20”x20”
circulation diagram for site plan and each floor plan - 6”x6”
program diagram for site plan and each floor plan - 6”x6”
treatment diagrams, rules / alteration / result - 8.5”x11”
reverse diagram solids - 11”x17”
reverse diagram voids - 11”x17”
reverse diagram surfaces - 11”x17”
volumetric model
light shadow floor plan and section drawing

--Victoria McReynolds 13:33, 17 September 2012 (UTC)

Solid, Void & Surface

Create a series of axonometric diagrams that study the building as a solid, then a void and finally surfaces. Identify solid as a space of continuous enclosure (opaque doors shut provide enclosure). Adapt the massing to conditions of direct light through glazing, for example if light is used to identify a threshold carve into the massing of that solid. Identify voids from the solid diagram being sure to included spaces enclosed on three sides. Referencing your translation diagrams, identify key surfaces that organize and communicate the concept of the house. Each diagram is to be on a separate 11x17, included one shade to indicate form and lines to describe edge and intersections. Articulate information that is behind content or "hidden" as a series of lines, similar to a wire model, so the outline of the form is understood.

For Monday:
20"x20": revised axonometric
11"x17": solids building diagram
11"x17": voids building diagram
11"x17": surfaces building diagram

--Victoria McReynolds 22:00, 14 September 2012 (UTC)

Section Axonometric

Utilizing your reconstructed plan, identify an angle from which you will project vertically. Locate a section line along this plan which you will use to reveal the key interior spaces. This section line location should reveal the organizational strategies you have realized through the diagraming sequence. This can either illustrate a cross section, longitudinal or a section on angle. What ever the location of the section line it is required that the section plane be perpendicular to the ground plane. Project vertically through your building being sure to include the roof. Poche the cut plane and cast shadows as they would occurring on the interior and exterior of your building. Reference axonometric examples such as, John Hejduk's Wall House and Neil Denari's shadow techniques.

For Friday:
20"x20": section axonometric, to include shadow conditions

--Victoria McReynolds 02:49, 13 September 2012 (UTC)

Treatment Diagrams

Diagram in a three step sequence a conceptual evolution of your house, 1) the rule set, 2) the alteration to the rule, 3) the resulting spatial conclusion. Your rule set should include organizing observations that stem from either place or structure, utilize construction lines and basic geometries. The alteration diagram needs to identify where and how the rule shifted, utilize line type and size variation or single color highlight to illustrate. Your resulting diagram should answer the question, "What is the driving force behind this house?". Consider that in regards to spatial organization and the key architectural features of the house.

For Wednesday:
All Diagrams revised
8.5" x 11" : Treatment Diagrams, 1 set of 3 per floor

--Victoria McReynolds 23:29, 11 September 2012 (UTC)

Diagram + Drawings

For Monday, diagram the geometric proportion relationships of all floor plans and a single program size relationship diagram that illustrates public to private and servant | served spaces. Look towards OMA program diagram methods of the Seattle Public Library and Classical proportioning diagrams for primary geometry drawings. In addition finalize your site plan, floor plans and section drawings as discussed Friday and from your observations of other drawings in our studio.

For Monday:
reprint all drawings.
24"x10": site plan
24"x30": floor plans and section (place section on the top of the page followed by upper floor plan and so on)
8.5"x11": proportion diagrams
8.5"x11": program size diagram

--Victoria McReynolds 19:19, 8 September 2012 (UTC)

Spatial Reconstruction

From your plans and other research information, reconstruct a longitudinal section of your house. Utilize construction and guide lines to develop the section drawing with accurate and proportioned content. Poche any element that is cut through from the cut plane, and include information that is seen behind the cut plane.

Additionally construct a volumetric model identifying major space defining features, such as floor, roof, wall, columns, and mullions. Use chipboard, basswood and piano wire as your material pallet. This model will be used to explore the behavior of light and shadow in your house so it should be no less then 1/16" and no larger than 1/8".

For Friday:
24" width, hight as needed: longitudinal section drawing
1 volumetric model

--Victoria McReynolds 11:19, 6 September 2012 (UTC)

Graphic Clarity

As a reminder, rework your site plan, floor plans and diagrams with particular attention paid to the line language and composition. Build into the drawings a hierarchy of line weights as they relate to architectural elements (such as walls, columns, doors, glazing) and diagram content (such as public to private, servant, and circulation use and type). For this exercise and all future exercises, include standard information such as your name, drawing title (e.g. plan or diagram type), north arrow, and scale.

For Wednesday:
24"x36": (portrait format) revised plans - site plan at top followed by upper floor to lower floor plan
6"x6": revised circulation diagram for each plan and site plan
6"x6": revised program diagram for each plan and site plan

--Victoria McReynolds 16:34, 2 September 2012 (UTC)

Reconstruction + Diagram

Utilizing drawing conventions of line weights and line types, redraw the site plan and all floor plans of your house project in Illustrator. Include main architectural elements (such as walls, doors, stairs, etc). Show conditions above the cut plane as dashed and conditions a level below the cut plane as lighter. For architectural line weight examples, reference Richard Meier drawings.

Diagram circulation and diagram program for each plan condition. Circulation is to include the entrance(s), path and transitions as one would move through the entire house. For program, identify servant and living places from public to private. Working within one hue, utilize techniques of transparencies and opacity to indicate differences. Reference examples in the previous post.

Follow guidelines and questions outlined in the Design Analysis project statement task 01, 02 & 03.

For Friday:
24"x30": (portrait format) site plan at top followed by upper floor through to ground floor plan
6"x6": circulation diagram for each plan and site plan
6"x6": program diagram for each plan and site plan

--Victoria McReynolds 12:17, 30 August 2012 (UTC)

Diagram Examples

Circulation Diagram of the Lower Rio Grande Basin, by Eddie Garcia

from Learning from Las Vegas, a study by |Venturi and Scott Brown

House Studies

4: Eames House (CSH No.8), Charles and Ray Eames > Cody / Samuel / Clifton

9: Bye (Wall) House, John Hejduk > Ryan / Andrew / Zack

11: Bordeaux House, OMA > Ronnie / Kendall / Mark / Ismael

16: Neugebauer House, Richard Meier > Christopher / Thomas / Emily / Edward

20: Kings Road House, R.M. Schindler > Dan / Marvin / Jaydan

This is your house for the next four weeks, learn it inside and out. Visualize yourself in the building, imagine walking through the spaces and challenge yourself to find components in the drawings elsewhere. For example if you see a wall in plan, how does it show up in section or elevation.

--Victoria McReynolds 22:44, 27 August 2012 (UTC)

Design Analysis

With Task 01 of the Design Analysis as a guide, gather information on your building. As a group you are responsible for printing one shared set of text and images, but individually you are responsible for drawings. At this stage collect and gather as much information as possible so that your collection is substantial enough for reference later. Wednesday, be prepared to collectively present general information of your project (architect, location, year built, size, strategies, photo sequence). Individually you will be responsible to verbally comment on your observations of path, place, transition and servant space. Follow Task 01 questions as guidelines.

For pin up at the start of studio, Wednesday (8/29):

Text: b&w, 8.5x11 portrait, information as outlined in guide
Photos: b&w, 8.5x11 portrait, reconstructing a walk through of the house
Drawings: b&w, 11x17 landscape, as listed in guide

Additional requirements for the studio: desk clamp lamp (|Staples example) and scale figures at 1/8" and 1/16" (|example)

--Victoria McReynolds 22:31, 27 August 2012 (UTC)